Status of Moore's law

Moore's law is the empirical observation that component density and performance of integrated circuits doubles every year [1], which was then revised to doubling every two years[2]. Guided by the scaling rules set by Dennard[3] in 1974, smart optimization, timely introduction of new processing techniques, device structures, and materials (in many areas of the device except the channel), Moore's law has continued unabated for 40 years. Driven by tremendous advances in lithography, the 65 nm logic technology node featuring ∼30 nm transistors is currently in high volume production [4] and [5]. Furthermore, 45 nm and 32 nm technologies with process targets defined to maintain Moore's law are currently under development at several companies. With such small feature sizes in high volume production and under development, Si CMOS technologies are now leading the field of nanotechnology and will continue to do so. Nanotechnology is defined, according to the National Science and Engineering Technology Council (NSET)[6], as:

Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1-100 nm range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. The novel and differentiating properties and functions are developed at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm. link


1. G.E. Moore Electronics, 38 (1965), p. 114

2. G.E. Moore Tech. Dig. IEDM, 21 (1975), p. 11

3. R.H. Dennard, et al. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 9 (1974), p. 256

4. P. Bai, et al. Tech. Dig. IEDM (2004), p. 657

5. A. Chatterjee, et al. Tech. Dig. IEDM (2004), p. 665

6. NSET (Feb 2000),